Orange vermilion, vermilion
WITH SECRET MARK
Subject: Edwin Stanton
Number issued: 2,500,000
Printer: Continental Bank Note Co.
Paper: Hard white wove paper
Scott #: 160
Date Issued: July 1st, 1873
$18 - $45
No postmark with gum (MH)
$130 - $250
Full perfect gum, no postmark
no trace of stamp hinge mark (MNH)
$4,000 - $8,000
This one presented a difficulty for me. Try as hard as I could I could not find the source document from which the vignette was derived. The closest I could come was this 1863 engraving.
Ribbed paper describes the texture created by paper-making rollers that have fine corrugations cut into them. Ribbed paper can be confused with paper with heavy laid lines as their appearance when held to a light is similar. One way to determine if the paper is ribbed is to run your finger over the surface of the stamp, since ribbing is not a watermark but a texturing of the surface of the stamp.
Unlike laid paper ribbed paper cannot be detected in watermark fluid. The 'ribbing' on ribbed paper are forty lines per inch whilst laid paper is much more widely spaced. It can found vertically and less commonly horizontally. It was only used by the Continental Bank Note Company.
Hold the stamp at a very slight angle to your eye with a downward light source. Looking along the back of the stamp a trained eye can detect the vertical or horizontal lines in the texturing of the paper.
Photographing the ribbing of a paper is next to impossible. However above is an example of ribbed paper
Look for a semi circles drawn inside the lower left ball where it meets the rest of the design This was a 'secret mark' that identifies #160
#160 was issued with the following plate #
Imprint and plate number
#160 is printed on hard white wove paper
Hard paper was used by the National Bank Note Company and the Continental Bank Note Company. Soft paper was used by the American Bank Note Company.
The hard paper of the Bank Note issues is fairly white, perhaps it might better be called grayish white or sometimes a somewhat bluish white, while the soft paper seems slightly yellowish when compared with the hard paper.
Soft paper has a looser weave and more porous paper than hard paper, so it feels softer, displays a mesh or weave when viewed by holding the stamp between your eyes and light so that you are looking “through” the stamp.
Some people can also ID hard paper be “flicking” the edges and thereby “feeling” the stiffness of the paper versus the feel of soft paper if flicked in the same way. There's more of a snap to the hard paper.
On high magnification the perforation tips on soft paper will have more strands of paper sticking out than hard paper.
Soft paper is fairly dead looking under a long wave UV light ( (briefly and from a reasonable distance in a darkened room) while hard paper reflects more light. If reference copies of stamp designs known only on hard paper or soft paper are viewed under UV light, the difference in paper brightness should be apparent.
For a reference stamp obtain the inexpensive 1861 3¢ (#65), it is only available in hard paper.
A simple test is to hold a stamp to a lamp, you will see the hard paper is more translucent.
Large die proof on India, die sunk on card
Roosevelt plate proof on India mounted on gray card
Plate proof on India
Plate proof on card
"Atlanta" trial color plate proof on India